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2016年学位英语阅读理解解题方法之主旨大意题
信息来源:贵州自考网 作者:admin 发布时间:2016-06-25 00:00 浏览:

  主旨大意题是全局性的问题,也就是说只有读完全文,了解文章的大意才能做。因此我们建议这类问题最好在做完这篇阅读理解所有问题后再去做,因为你在做完局部性的、细节辨认性的问题后,自然会对文章大意有一定的了解。这时再去做主旨大意题,就可省去读全文。

  (一)常见的表述方式

  What is the main topic of the passage?

  With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?

  The central idea conveyed in the above passage is that

  Which of the following best sums up the passage?

  The main idea of this passage is

  The passage tells us

  Which of the following statements best expresses/summarizes the main idea of the passage?

  What is the main idea of the passage?

  This article is mainly about

  This passage deals mainly with

  What does the passage mainly discuss?

  Which of the following best states the theme of the passage?

  In this passage the author/writer mainly argues that

  The purpose of the author in writing the article is to

  What does the author intend to convey through the passage?

  (二)解题方法

  1.重要位置解题法

  任何一篇阅读理解文章都有一个中心思想。尽管绝大多数阅读理解文章是从一篇较长的文章中摘选下来的,但不管摘选一段还是几段,不管摘选哪几段,不管摘选长短,摘选下来的句子必须本身是自成一体的,是有中心思想的。一般说来,绝大多数文章的中心思想是用一个句子表达出来。其特点是概括性的。中心思想句到哪儿找?它在文章中的位置比较有规律,一般出现在文章的开头。

  例1

  Describing learning as meaning centered reminds us that the most fundamental concern of any learner is "making sense". In the relationship between reader and text, then,the making of meaning is primary. To describe the activities of reading and writing, we prefer the word "transacting" which "designates an ongoing process in which the elements or parts are seen as aspects or phases of a total situation. "A transactional view of reading and writing argues that writers construct texts "through transactions with the developing text and the meaning being expressed". Transformed in the process are the text itself and the writer's ways of organizing knowledge. During reading, readers construct texts by transacting with the page and indirectly with the author. Although reading is generally considered a "receptive" language process, this does not mean that the process is essentially passive. Readers use directions from the page to construct meaning from their own prior knowledge;the reader must read between and beyond the lines.

  Like reading, the process of writing is generative of meaning:we do not simply write down ideas that are fully formed before we put them to paper. The act of composing itself bring us ideas and insights. As meaning-making processes, reading, writing and talking are dynamic;meanings are developed and changed,discovered and clarfied, during the activities themselves. Iser has described this aspect of reading as "setting the work in motion" and setting oneself in motion too.

  Clearly in reading and writing the learner's prior knowledge plays an important role. There are many types of knowledge important to the acts of reading and writing. Since all meanings are made in the context of prior meanings,with each person bringing a unique fund of prior knowledge and experience,we should not expect everyone to respond to texts in the same way.

  The passage is mainly about

  A. reading and writing

  B. learning as meaning-centered

  C. reading through transactions

  D. the importance of prior knowledge

  读了第一句Describing learning as meaning centered reminds US that the most fun-damental concern of any learner is "making sense"(把学习语言描写成以意思为中心,因为学习者最关心的就是自己说的、写的能否让人懂。)根据我们粗读和做其他题时得到的信息,这一句应是全文的中心思想。再读选项,B)learning as meaning-centered正好和这句意思对上,因此是答案无疑了。当然中心思想句出现在文章的后几段也有:

  例2

  A wise man once said that the only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing. So, as a police officer, I have some urgent things to say to good people.

  Day after day my men and I struggle to hold back a tidal wave of crime. Something has gone terribly wrong with our once-proud American way of life. It has happened in the area of values. A key ingredient is disappearing, and I think I know what it is:ac-countability.

  Accountability isn't hard to define. It means that every person is responsible for his or her actions and liable for their consequences.

  Of the many values that hold civilization together--honesty, kindness,and so on--accountability may be the most important of all. Without it, there can be no respect, no trust, no law--and, ultimately, no society.

  My job as a police officer is to impose accountability on people who refuse,or have never learned, to impose it on themselves. But as every policeman knows, external con-trols on people's behavior are far less effective than internal restraints such as guilt, shame and embarrassment.

  Fortunately there are still communities--smaller towns, usually--wher schools maintain discipline and wher parents hold up standards that proclaim:"In this family certain things are not tolerated--they simply are not done!"

  Yet more and more, especially in our larger cities and suburbs, these inner re-straints are loosening. Your typical robber has none. He considers your property his property ; he takes what he wants,including your life if you engage him.

  The main cause of this break-down is a radical shift in attitudes. Thirty years ago, if a crime was committed,society was considered the victim. Now,in a shocking rever-sal,it's the criminal who is considered victimized : by his under-priviledged upbringing, by the school that didn't teach him to read, by the church that failed to reach him with moral guidance, by the parents who didn't provide a stable home.

  I don't believe it. Many others in equally disadvantaged circumstances choose not to engage in criminal activities. If we free the criminal, even partly, from accountabili-ty,we become a society of endless excuses wher no one accepts responsibility for any-thing.

  We in America desperately need more people who believe that the person who commits a crime is the one responsible for it. The key point of the passage is that

  A. stricter discipline should be maintained in schools and families

  B. more good examples should be set for people to follow

  C. more restrictions should be imposed on people's behavior

  D. more people should accept the value of accountability

  这篇文章的中心思想句就出现在文章的第四段:Of the many values that hold civi-lization together——honesty, kindness, and so on——accountability may be the most im-portant of all. Without it, there can be no respect, no trust, no law――and, ultimately, no society(在许多人类文明的价值观念中,负起责任是最重要的)。文章最后一句的总结也是这一意思:We in America desperately need more people who believe that the per-son who commits a crime is the one responsible for it.使更多的人认识到犯罪的人要对自己的罪行负起责任。对照选项,D.more people should accept the value of accounta-bility就是这个意思。

  也有中心思想旬在文章结尾出现的。

  例3

  The death of reading has been frequently, if not prematurely, reported. We are toldthat we live in an audio-visual age with radio,television, film, or other forms for ear and eye replacing the printed page. The picture is said to be faster to present, more adapta-ble to the message, and easier to comprehend.

  How can anyone be expected to resist the tide, the torrent of competing images?

  Can we preserve the printed page and the art and skills of reading? Untold teachers, writers,and others have struggled to show the rewards of reading,to demonstrate the practical values, and to encourage reading for personal discovery and growth. The ques-tion is whether the dedicated have had more influence than the image-flashers. Fortu-nately there are some hopeful signs.

  We can note the publication of more books, magazines, and papers than in any pre-vious time in our history. Libraries report far greater use than ever before. Schools con-tinue to show large numbers at all ages(except the young,due to a changing birthrate)seeking to attend. Even the visual media acknowledge their great dependence on the production of the printed word. Reading is not dead, dying, or. seriously ill. It remains as the major avenue to individual learning and satisfaction.

  If you agree with the point of view in this article you would probably

  A. read less than ever

  B. rely more on visual media

  C. watch television selectively

  D. attach due importance to reading

  这道题绕了个圈子,问的还是文章中心思想。根据中心思想句出现的位置和特征,我们读到文章第一句:The death of reading has been frequently, if not prematurely, reported.文章最后一句:Reading is not dead, dying, or seriously ill.It remains as the major avenue to individual learning and satisfaction.文章第一句是说人们一直认为阅读已消亡。经过一番论述,文章最后一句总结说阅读没有消亡,相反仍然是个人学习和满足的主要途径。可见这句是文章的中心思想句。用这句意思去看四个选择项,不难发现D.attach due importance to reading是正确答案。

  2.主题句解题法

  主题句通常以判断句的形式出现,在文章中的通常位置为第一段首句、第一段末句和全文末句等地方。

  (1)主题句在首段首句

  许多文章开门见山,一开始就摆出要说明的主要对象或要论述的主要观点,接下去的句子和段落都说明或论述它。这样,文章的结构就属于从一般到具体,主题也就在首段首句。

  例4

  Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive(认知的)ar-eas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age.

  People will be alert(警觉的)and receptive(愿意接受的)if they are faced with information that gets them to think about things they are interested in. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.

  Many experts are so convinced of the benefits of challenging the brain that they are putting the theory to work in their own lives. "The idea is not necessary to learn to memorize enormous amounts of information,"says James Fozard, associate director of the National Institute on Aging. "Most of us don't need that kind of skill. Such specif- ic training is of less interest than being able to maintain mental alertness. " Fozard and others say they challenge their brains with different mental skills, both because they enjoy them and because they are sure that their range of activities will help the way their brains work.

  Gene Cohen, acting director of the same institute, suggests that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups. Cohen says that we are frequently advised to keep physically active as we age, but older people need to keep mentally active as well. Those who do are more likely to maintain their intellectual abilities and to be generally happier and better adjusted, "The point is, you need to do both," Cohen says. "Intellectual activity actually influ-ences brain-cell health and size. "

  本文以引经据典的方法强调了头脑健康,尤其是老年人头脑健康的重要性。这个中心内容在第一段第一句就已指出:人在用脑时,大脑会处于兴奋状态,这时大脑在诸如注意力和记忆力等属于认知领域的能力方面会得到有效发挥。

  What is the passage mainly about?

  A. How biochemical changes occur in the human brain.

  B. Why people should keep active not only physically but also mentally.

  C. How intellectual activities influence brain-cell health.

  D. Why people should receive special mental training as they age.

  这道题的正确答案为B.A与C均为原文中的细节,而D与原文第三段第4~5行"...Such specific training is of less interest than being able to maintain mental alert-ness"相矛盾,所以都不是正确答案。

  (2)主题句在第一段末句

  首段末句也是主题句常出现的地方。假若如此,这个主题句就不仅是对全文的总结,也是对第一段的总结,而且开启第二段及以后的说明或论述。简而言之,这种文章结构是:具体说明或论述(一段)一总结(一段末的主题句)一后文的具体说明或论述。

  这种形式的主题句之前通常有表示总结的提示词,如:in conclusion, to conclude, in summary, to sum up, in short, in brief, in a nutshell;或表示推断的提示词:there-fore, thus, as a result, accordingly;或表示转折的提示词:but, however等。转折之后就出现主题句的情况较多,这种谋篇套路可以用“去旧取新、标新立异”八个字概括。文章中诸如"every parent"、"a popular belief"、"frequently assumed"、"universally accept-ed"等词句提示作者可能在下文提出一个与之不同的观点标新立异,假若如此,那么作者“标新立异”之处的观点就是主题大意。对于某一现象,过去已有解释,作者提出新的解释,新解释就是主题大意。这体现了上述的“去旧取新”原则。

  例5

  Do you find getting up in the morning so difficult that it's painful? This might be called laziness, but Dr. Kleitman has a new explanation. He has proved that everyone has a daily energy cycle.

  During the hours when you labour through your work you may say that you're 'hot’. That's true. The time of day when you feel most energetic is when your cycle of body temperature is at its peak. For some people the peak comes during the fore- noon. For others it comes in the afternoon or evening. No one has discovered why this is so, but it leads to such familiar monologues(自言自语)as: 'Get up, John! You'll be late for work again!' The possible explanation to the trouble is that John is at his temperature-and-energy peak in the evening. Much family quarrelling ends when hus- bands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has.

  You can't change your energy cycle, but you can learn to make your life fit it bet- ter. Habit can help. Dr. Kleitman believes. Maybe you're sleepy in the evening but feel you must stay up late anyway. Counteract(对抗)your cycle to some extent by ha- bitually staying up later than you want to. If your energy is low in the morning but you have an important job to do early in the day, rise before your usual hour. This won't change your cycle, but you'll get up steam and work better at your low point.

  Get off to a slow start which saves your energy. Get up with a leisurely yawn(呵欠)and stretch. Sit on the edge of the bed a minute before putting your feet on the floor. Avoid the troublesome search for clean elothes by laying them out the night be-fore. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.

  If a person finds getting up early a problem, most probably

  A. he is a lazy person

  B. he refuses to follow his own energy cyde

  C. he is not sure when his energy is how

  D. he is at his peak in the afternoon or evening.

  这段文章先提出现象:早晨起床困难,接着以不肯定的口吻提出一种解释,然后"but"一转,提出Kleitman博士的新解释:各人的精力在一天之中有个周期。这个"but"之后的新解释就是主题句。

  (3)文章首末两段均有主题句

  主题句到末段才出现的情况较少,常见的情况是文章开门见山提出主题句,中间加以论述,文末复述首段的主题,这也是写作方法之一。

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