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2016年学位英语阅读理解解题方法之理解推论题
信息来源:贵州自考网 作者:admin 发布时间:2016-06-24 00:00 浏览:

  题干中含有infer,conclude的推理题称为推论题。要求推出的结论可能与文章主旨有关,也可能关系不大,但不管如何,碰到这种推理题,都应尽可能在速读完全文后再做,因为它的综合性较强。与主旨有关的推论题,可以仔细阅读文中表达主旨的相关句;在读完文章后,扫一下选项,排除不太可能的选项(如:与原文明显相矛盾的,提到了原文找不到依据的事实、细节或观点),将剩下的选项回原文寻找语言证据,互相对照,能够由原文表面文字信息合理推出来的,即为正确答案。

  例1

  People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some rela-tionship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(预言的)because a few have come true; they neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.

  Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower. "If it does ring while you are in the shower, the even will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下印象).

  People. want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for example, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in threes. "Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such beliefs.

  We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an auto-mobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling ex-plains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values: careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy," This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.

  Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(谨慎的)in drawing conclusions. The "evidence" of everyday life is sometimes misleading.

  What can be inferred from the passage?

  A. Happenings that go unnoticed deserve more attention.

  B. In a series of misfortunes the third one is usually the most serious.

  C. People tend to make use of evidence that supports their own beliefs.

  D. Believers of misfortunes happening in threes are cautious in interpreting events.

  浏览一下选项,B与D在原文找不到依据,而C与文章首句People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some relationship.意思不符,所以均应排除。文章第一段和第二段各举了一个例子:第一段指出人们因为一些梦想成真而忽视了多数梦想没有变成现实这一事实;第二段指出人们总是抱怨“每次淋浴电话就响”,但却忽视了大多数淋浴时电话并不响这一事实。这两个例子都说明人们易于记住表明某种关系的少数事件,而对多数事件注意不够。因此A为正确答案。

  例2

  Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person's gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you per- mitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up(打量)and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interac-tion. You need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Golfman(1963)calls "a dimming of the lights."

  It can be inferred from the paragraph that

  A.every glance has its significance

  B.staring at a person is an expression of interest

  C.a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable

  D.a glance conveys more meaning than words

  浏览一下选项,可以先排除8与C,因为上文并未讨论这两点;再看一下文中的逻辑结构,刚开始几句从总的方面论述:Exchange a glance with someone, then look away.Do you realize that you have made a statement. Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again.每一瞥的含义随时间长短变化而变化,接着举例说明在不同场合中的具体情况。由此可知,A:每一瞥均有其本身的含义(即各瞥含义不同)为正确答案,D所提到的比较,在原文中找不到依据,应该排除。

  例3

  A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades.

  It can be inferred from the passage that maj or universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe .

  A.rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students

  B.punishment is more effective than rewarding

  C.failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards

  D.discouraging the students'anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgencv

  这是文中Eisenberger举的一个例子(第二句),其目的是为了说明Eisenberger的观点:假如老师总是让学生关注奖励,或者对表现一般的学生也给高分,那么学生们最终都会不求进取――A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students,A表达的正是此意。

  例4

  The human brain contains lo thousand million cells and each of these mav have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used tO discourage US and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human―like ability,but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon. In only lo or 20 years perhaps,we will be able to assemble a machine as compiex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelli-gent by loading in the right software(软件)or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

  I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon's long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

  As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the con- struction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of peo-ple, will he within our power.

  It can be inferred from the passage that

  A. after the installation of a great number of ceils and connections, robots will be capable of self-reproduction

  B. with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability

  C. once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will possess intelligence

  D. robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space

  正确答案为B.文章第一段开始时叙述由于人脑极其复杂,以致我们排除了制造智能机器人的可能性,但从第二旬后半部分开始说明存在这种可能性;第二段首句进一步肯定这种可能性:I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors.第三段以智能机器人在未来的利用肯定其出现的可能性,由此可以推出B项为正确答案:随着科技的迅速发展,有可能制造出智能机器人。

  You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywher but into another passenger's eyes.Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an eleva-tor,you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.

  例5

  Despite the good news, civil engineers aren't resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blue prints(蓝图)for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities wher earthquakes often take place.

  In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a build- ing off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its founda- tion to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake's vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the op- posite direction.

  The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, that would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

  It can be inferred from the passage that in minimizing the damage caused by earth- quakes attention should be focused on

  A. the increasing use of rubber and steel in capital construction

  B. the development of flexible building materials

  C. the reduction of the impact of ground vibrations

  D. early forecasts of earthquakes

  有关抗震方法集中在第二段,其中第二句指出:Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. 由此可知,减少地震破坏的方法是减少地面震动所造成的冲击,C项符合题意,为正确答案。D项为无关答案,而A项与B项只是抗震材料的种类,其目的仍然是为了减少地面震动造成的冲击;事实上,只要能抗震,其他材料也行,所以应排除它们。

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